The word “common” in the term “common operational picture” does not mean that all participants have the same display picture; rather, it means that all participants have access to common sources of data, which could be displayed in different ways depending on the needs and equipment of the particular user. Command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) architecture access to data is the key here. From a network-centric perspective, users should have access to data as soon as they are in some comprehensible form, even though further processing of the data might be intended. This is because different users will have different needs for the data, and the additional processing might remove information content according to the perspectives of some users. For example, air vehicle tracks could be processed with the criteria of minimizing false-alarm rates or in order to display all potential leakers; the resulting processed data would not be the same in the two cases. Common processing will have to be applied in cases, for example, in which the parties involved need to see the same air picture, but the data should still be accessible in their preprocessed form.
NASA researchers sponsored by Dryden’s Small Business Innovation Research program introduced airborne science networking capabilities, such as telepresence and over-the-horizon, on an aircraft bearing a payload of instrumentation with a combined gross weight of less than three pounds.
The battery-powered NightHawk micro air vehicle, built by Applied Research Associates Inc. of Randolph, Vt., communicated with ground systems via the Iridium Satellite constellation. Simultaneously, a mission monitor delivered situational-awareness information from the satellites as computer displays that ground personnel could then access.
Ever ridden a pair of wheels with Nobel prize-winning ingredients? Neither had we until now. While they look like other carbon road wheels, beneath the surface lies a layer of Graphene – ‘G+’ in Vittoria-speak – which is being touted as the next wonder material.
Vittoria claims the graphene makes the Quranos stronger and laterally stiffer, with greater impact resistance, but also lighter and with improved heat dissipation, and still more compliant. And given graphene’s properties, these claims are entirely feasible.
The most obvious application for a composite material like graphene is in frames, wheels and other components currently made from carbon fibre. As Musgrove explains, “Frames are becoming extremely lightweight, and there is not a lot of weight to be shed in the current crop of high-end frames, many of which come with maximum rider weight limits. With graphene, you could take that sub 700g frame, produce it without a rider weight limit and confidently offer a lifetime warranty or even possibly go lighter. There is a potential for it, but I reckon it will come at a substantial cost.”
While graphene is still in its formative years, the high strength, low weight and bondability could make graphene an ideal composite material. Despite these mechanical characteristics, it’s graphene’s other properties that create the most exciting possibilities.
Carbon clinchers have been plagued with horror stories of catastrophic wheel failure caused by resin overheating, resulting in the tyre bead folding out like a wet taco.
“Another thing that graphene could be used for is heat dissipation. With (carbon) clinchers you have that brake pressure from the calipers. That resistance generates a lot of heat, and the epoxy starts to degrade. Graphene may be a way you could move the heat away from the brake track,” Turner said.
Let’s not forget that graphene is also a phenomenal electrical conductor. With recreational cyclist running electronic drivetrains, power meters, computers, lights, and in some cases motors, there is an increasing dependence on batteries. While friction and hub based generators have been around for quite some time, graphene could potentially allow for a different power source.
“I am being pie in the sky here, but a graphene frame could potentially be a super-capacitor which gets charged by a solar panel somewhere on the bike, constantly keeping your Di2 and lights charged,” said Luescher.
Graphene is a sheet of carbon atoms bound together in a honeycomb lattice pattern where it is a conductor of electrical and thermal energy, extremely lightweight chemically inert, and flexible with a large surface area. It is also considered eco-friendly and sustainable, with unlimited possibilities for numerous applications, however it is difficult to manufacture.
Graphene-based batteries have exciting potential and while they are not commercially available yet, R&D is intensive and will hopefully yield results in the future.
In November 2016, Huawei unveiled a new graphene-enhanced Li-Ion battery that can remain functional at higher temperature (60° degrees as opposed to the existing 50° limit) and offers a longer operation time – double than what can be achieved with previous batteries. To achieve this breakthrough, Huawei incorporated several new technologies – including an anti-decomposition additives in the electrolyte, chemically stabilized single crystal cathodes – and graphene to facilitate heat dissipation. Huawei says that the graphene reduces the battery’s operating temperature by 5 degrees.
In June 2014, US based Vorbeck Materials announced the Vor-Power strap, a lightweight flexible power source that can be attached to any existing bag strap to enable a mobile charging station (via 2 USB and one micro USB ports). the product weighs 450 grams, provides 7,200 mAh and is probably the world’s first graphene-enhanced battery.
In May 2014, American company Angstron Materials rolled out several new graphene products. The products, said to become available roughly around the end of 2014, include a line of graphene-enhanced anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries. The battery materials were named “NANO GCA” and are supposed to result in a high capacity anode, capable of supporting hundreds of charge/discharge cycles by combining high capacity silicon with mechanically reinforcing and conductive graphene.
Graphene batteries market report
Developments are also made in the field of graphene batteries for electric vehicles. Henrik Fisker, who announced its new EV project that will sport a graphene-enhanced battery, unveiled in November 2016 what is hoped to be a competitor to Tesla. Called EMotion, the electric sports car will reportedly achieve a 161 mph (259 kmh) top speed and a 400-mile electric range.
Graphene Nanochem and Sync R&D’s October 2014 plan to co-develop graphene-enhanced Li-ion batteries for electric buses, under the Electric Bus 1 Malaysia program, is another example.
In August 2014, Tesla suggested the development of a “new battery technology” that will almost double the capacity for their Model S electric car. It is unofficial but reasonable to assume graphene involvement in this battery.
UK based Perpetuus Carbon Group and OXIS Energy agreed in June 2014 to co-develop graphene-based electrodes for Lithium-Sulphur batteries, which will offer improved energy density and possibly enable electric cars to drive a much longer distance on a single battery charge.
Another interesting venture, announced in September 2014 by US based Graphene 3D Labs, regards plans to print 3D graphene batteries. These graphene-based batteries can potentially outperform current commercial batteries as well as be tailored to various shapes and sizes.
Other prominent companies which declared intentions to develop and commercialize graphene-enhanced battery products are: Grafoid, SiNode together with AZ Electronic Materials, XG Sciences, Graphene Batteries together with CVD Equipment and CalBattery.
NEW YORK–(BUSINESS WIRE)–June 17, 2003–Arotech Corporation (NasdaqNM: ARTX) announced today that a zinc-air battery developed by its subsidiary, Electric Fuel Battery Corp., powered a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) in test flights in Israel. The Electric Fuel zinc-air powered flight was longer than that achieved with the same MAV using a High Performance Lithium Ion Polymer battery.
Electric Fuel developed these batteries under a contract from an Israeli security agency, as reported by the Company last year. Under the terms of the contract, Electric Fuel is developing prototype zinc-air cells that can maintain high power densities for extended periods of time.
The Company recently announced that a prototype zinc-air battery developed for a US Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) passed a milestone in testing a Marine Dragon Eye unmanned drone.
Electric Fuel’s cutting-edge zinc-air cells for UAVs and MAVs are high-power, lightweight versions of its most advanced zinc-air cells. The Company believes Electric Fuel’s zinc air batteries have the potential to greatly extend the mission duration of these reconnaissance aircraft.
JUMP bikes are in their early days, and this week’s rollout is a modest 100-bike endeavor that isn’t yet open to the public, though that is a goal for the future. Instead, Social Bicycles staff have been reaching out to local businesses and nonprofits to offer memberships to people living and working in places where the program is starting out.
The limited rollout is part of a UC Berkeley study to see how people choose their mode of transportation, funded by a $735,000 grant from the Federal Highway Administration.
The Bay Area’s first electric bike-sharing program put 100 neon-red bicycles on San Francisco streets this week, just ahead of the scheduled debut on Wednesday of the region’s big Ford GoBike project.
This will be the first e-bike program for Social Bicycles, a Brooklyn, N.Y., firm that runs bike sharing in 27 cities including Portland, Ore., and San Mateo. This week, the company is running a free e-bike demonstration in the Bayview and Mission districts. Eventually, it plans to charge $1 for 15 minutes of riding. By comparison, Ford GoBike’s single-time fee is $3 for a 30-minute trip, and its bikes are strictly human-powered.
The electric-assisted bikes, branded Jump, require pedaling but can easily boost riders up all but the steepest hills. I rode up Broadway from the Embarcadero to Taylor, although the last block — a 21 percent grade — took some sweat and traversing.
There’s one problem for Social Bicycles’ Jump operation: It’s not permitted by the city yet.
Last month, the Board of Supervisors voted unanimously to authorize the San Francisco’s participation in a plan to grow the regional bike share program from 700 to 7,000 bikes in San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland, Berkeley and Emeryville.
This expansion will transform the successful pilot program into a new, robust transportation option for the Bay Area. Under the plan, bike share in San Francisco will expand from 350 to 4,500 bikes, giving San Francisco the largest number of shared bikes per capita of any city in the nation and supporting San Francisco’s policy goals of increasing bicycling and reducing traffic fatalities.
The expansion is slated to take place in phases — beginning in 2016 and continuing through 2018 — and will bring bike share to every district in San Francisco. Motivate, the program’s operator, will deliver this expansion at no cost to the taxpayers.
Power efficiency control, efficiency factor improvement
Standard voltage: 768.0V
Working voltage range: 672V~876V
Min. discharge current(0.5C) : 5x198Ah @ 100A Discharge
Avg. discharge current(0.5C) : 5x200Ah @ 100A Discharge
Rapid Recharge: (10s): 2.0C(5x400A)
Standard Recharge time : 2.5hours Fast Recharge time : 1.5hours
0°C~1 0°C 0.1C Max.(5x20A)
10°C~2 3°C 0.5C Max.(5x100A)
23°C~45°C 1.0C Max.(5x200A)
45°C~50°C 0.5C Max.(5x100A)
50°C Above, stop charging
Discharge -20°C~60°C 1C(5x200A)
Storage temperature: -20°C~45°C
BMS communication protocol: CAN2.0B
Internal battery balancing method: Fill-in balancing system